Born in the U.S.A.Resources


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PatchWorks Films
Filmmakers' site, with more information on BORN IN THE U.S.A. as well as their other films.


BORN IN THE U.S.A. Legislative Guide
Guide with detailed facts and figures on the status of midwifery and birth issues in different states.

Birthing the Future
Leading childbirth advocate's site. Birth Today section packed with information on the medical model, risks and alternative care.
Advice from birth professionals, birth stories, and information on birth plans, procedures and complications.

The Online Birth Center
Information on midwifery, nutrition, breastfeeding, complications and alternative health.


The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

Mayo Clinic


The Birthing Options Page


The Cochrane Collaboration
A collection of databases, each containing information on systematic, up-to-date reviews of clinical trials.

National Center for Health Statistics
Monthly Vital Statistics Reports



The Boston Women's Health Book Collective
(617) 625-0277
Publishers of "Our Bodies, Ourselves for the New Century", this 30-year-old organization is devoted to education about women and health. Their website includes a critique of childbirth advice books.

Maternity Center Association (MCA)
(212) 777-5000
The nation's oldest woman centered childbirth organization. Creates excellent consumer publications and conducts classes, conferences, and seminars about birth.

National Organization for Women (NOW)
(202) 628-8669
The nation's largest women's organization. In 1999, NOW voted to recognize choice of birth attendant and location as a fundamental reproductive right.

National Women's Health Network
(202) 347-1140
Monitors and works to influence government and industry policies relating to issues of women's health.


Asian Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF)
(415) 954-9964
Provides health assistance and advocacy for low-income APIA women. Also collects data and provides public information.

Birthing Project USA
(888) 657-9790
With one-on-one mentoring projects in 56 cities, promotes good health and better birth outcomes among African American women.

National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health (NLIRH)
(202) 326-8790
Provides education and advocacy about issues that primarily affect Latina women.


The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM)
(202) 728-9876
Primarily represents certified nurse-midwives. Provides membership services, national certification and accredits nurse-midwifery education programs.

Citizens for Midwifery (CfM)
(888) 236-4880
An excellent resource for information about legislation, materials, current research studies and grass-roots activism in support of midwifery.

Midwives Alliance of North America (MANA)
(888) 923-MANA
Represents direct-entry midwives and nurse-midwives on a regional, national, and international basis. Promotes guidelines for midwifery education, training, research and cooperation among interested groups. Also a good resource for locating a professional midwife in your area.

Physicians for Midwifery
(318) 232-4588
Medical professionals who support the midwifery model of care for low-risk women.


Association of Labor Assistants and Childbirth Educators (ALACE)
(617) 441-2500
How to find a doula or childbirth educator in your area.

Doulas of North America (DONA)
(801) 756-7331
Organization for professional labor assistants, who provide continuous emotional, psychological, and physical support for women during childbirth.

International Childbirth Education Association (ICEA)
(612) 854-8660
An interdisciplinary organization with regional chapters representing both parents and professionals with an interest in childbirth education and family-centered maternity care.

Lamaze International
(202) 857-1128
Offers childbirth education classes and instructor certification.


La Leche League International, Inc. (LLLI)
(800) LA-LECHE
Provides information and support for breast-feeding mothers, including one-on-one counseling.


National Association of Childbearing Centers (NACC)
(215) 234-8068
An umbrella organization dedicated to promoting the birth center concept through advocacy, data collection, accreditation, and support. Also maintains a list of birth centers in the U.S.



The Compleat Mother

Hip Mama

Mothering Magazine


The Birth Gazette

Midwifery Today

Articles and Publications:


Arms, Suzanne. Immaculate Deception II: Myth, Magic, and Birth. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts, 1996.

Boston Women's Health Book Collective. Our Bodies, Ourselves for the New Century. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Enkin, Murray, et al. A Guide to Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth. New York: Oxford University, 1995.

Gaskin, Ina May. Spiritual Midwifery (3rd ed.). Summertown, TN: The Book Publishing Co., 1990.

Goer, Henci. The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth. Perigree, 1999.

Harper, Barbara. Gentle Birth Choices. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts, 1994.

Kitzinger, Sheila. The Complete Book of Pregnancy and Childbirth. New York: Knopf, 1996.

Klaus, Marshall, and J. Kennel. Mothering the Mother: How a Doula Can Help You Have a Shorter, Easier Birth. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Mitford, Jessica. The American Way of Birth. New York: Penguin, 1992.

Sears, William and Martha. The Pregnancy Book: A Month-by-Month Guide. New York: Little, Brown, and Company, 1997.


Ackermann-Liebrich, U., et al. "Home versus hospital deliveries: Follow up study of matched pairs for procedures and outcome." BMJ 313, no. 7068 (1996):1276-7.

Anderson, R. E., and P. A. Murphy. "Outcomes of 11,788 planned home births attended by certified nurse-midwives: A retrospective descriptive study." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 40, no. 6 (1995):483-492.

Fullerton, J. T., and R. Severino. "In-hospital care for low-risk childbirth: Comparison with results from the National Birth Center Study." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 37, no. 5 (1992): 331-340.

Murphy, P. A., and J. Fullerton. "Outcomes of intended home births in nurse-midwifery practice: a prospective descriptive study." Obstetrics & Gynecology 92 (1998): 461-470.

Olsen, O. "Meta-analysis of the safety of home birth." Birth 24 (1997): 4-13.

Rooks, J.P., N. l. Weatherby, E. K. M. Ernst, S. Stapleton, D. Rosen and A. Rosenfeld. "Outcomes of care in birth centers: The National Birth Center Study." New England Journal of Medicine 321 (1989): 1804-1811

Rooks, J. P., N. l. Weatherby and E. K. M. Ernst. "The National Birth Center Study, part II: Intrapartum and immediate postpartum and neonatal care." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 37 (1992):301-330.

Schlenska, Peter. "Safety of Alternative Approaches to Childbirth." doctoral dissertation, Stanford University: Department of Sociology, 1999.

Wagner, M. "Midwife-managed care." The Lancet 348 (1996): 208.

Weigers, T. A., et al. "Outcome of planned home birth and planned hospital births in low risk pregnancies: Prospective study in midwifery practices in the Netherlands." BMJ 313, no. 7068 (1996): 1309-1313.


Brown, S. A., and D. E. Grimes. "A meta-analysis of nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in primary care." Nursing Res 44 (1995): 332-339.

Davis, L. G., et al. "Cesarean section rates in low-risk private patients managed by certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 39 (1994): 91-97.

Gabay, M., and S. M. Wolfe. "Encouraging the use of nurse-midwives: A report for policymakers." Public Citizen Health Research Group, Washington, D.C. November 1995.

MacDorman, M. F., and G. K. Singh. "Midwifery care, social and medical risk factors, and birth outcomes in the USA." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 52 (1998): 310-317.

Oakley, D., et al. "Comparisons of outcomes of maternity care by obstetricians and certified nurse-midwives." Obstetrics and Gynecology 88 (1996): 823-829.

Paine, L. L., C. M. Dower and E. H. O'Neil. "Midwifery in the 21st Century: Recommendations from the Pew Health Commission/UCSF Center for the Health Professions 1998 Task Force On Midwifery." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 44 (1999): 341-348.

Rosenblatt, R. A., et al. "Interspecialty differences in the obstetric care of low-risk women." AMJ Public Health 87, no. 3 (1997): 344-351.


Hodnett, E. D. "Caregiver support for women during childbirth." In The Cochrane Library. Oxford: 1999.

Kennel, J., M. Klaus, S. McGrath, S. Robertson and C. Hinkley. "Continuous emotional support during labor in a U.S. hospital." Journal of the American Medical Association 265 (1991): 2197-2201.


Lieberman, E. "No free lunch on labor day: The risks and benefits of epidural analgesia during labor." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 44 (1999): 394-398.

Lieberman, E., et al. "Epidural Analgesia, intrapartum fever, and neonatal sepsis evaluation." Pediatrics 99 (1997): 415-419.

Thorp, J. "Epidural Analgesia During Labor." Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 42, no. 4 (1999): 785-801.


Curtin, S. "Recent changes in birth attendant, place of birth, and the use of obstetric interventions, United States, 1989-1997." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 44, no. 4 (1999): 349-354

Eason, E., et al. "Preventing perineal trauma during childbirth: A systematic review." Obstet Gynecol 95, no. 3 (2000): 464-471.

Klein, M. C., et al. "Relationship of perineal trauma and morbidity, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic floor relaxation.: Am J Obstet Gynecol 171, no. 3 (1994): 591-598.

Klein, M. C., et al. "Determinants of vaginal-perineal and pelvic floor functioning in childbirth." Am J Obstet Gynecol 176, no. 2 (1997): 403-410.

Leveno, K. J., et al. "A prospective comparison of selective and universal electronic fetal monitoring in 34,995 pregnancies." New England Journal of Medicine 315 (1986): 615-619.

Rooks, J. P. "Evidence-based practice and its applications to childbirth care for low-risk women." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 44, no. 4 (1999): 355-369.

Smith, M. A., M. T. Ruffin and L. A. Green. "The Rational Management of Labor." Am Fam Physician 47, no. 6 (1993): 1471-1481.

Thacker, S. B., D. F. Stroup and H. B. Peterson. "Efficacy and safety of intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring: An update." Obstet Gynecol 86, no. 4 Pt1 (1995): 613-620.

Woolley, R. J. "Benefits And Risks Of Episiotomy: A Review of the English-Language Literature since 1980. Part I." Obstet Gynecol Surv 50, no. 11 (1995): 806-20.


Albers, L. L. and D. A. Savitz. "Hospital setting for birth and use of medical procedures in low-risk women." Journal of Nurse Midwifery 36, no. 6 (1991): 327-333.

Burt, R. D., T. L. Vaughan and J. R. Daling. "Evaluating the risks of cesarean section: Low Apgar score in repeat C-section and vaginal deliveries." American Journal of Public Health 78 (1988): 1312-1314.

Flamm, B. L. and E. J. Quilligan, EDS. Cesarean section: Guidelines for appropriate utilization. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995.

Francome, C., and w. Savage. "Cesarean section in Britain and the United States - 12% or 24%: Is either the right rate?" Soc Sci Med 37, no. 10 (1993): 1199-1218.

Goyert, G. L., et al. "The physician factor in cesarean birth rates." New England Journal of Medicine 320 (1989): 706-709.

Miller, J. M., Jr. "Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in cesarean section." Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 15 (1988): 629-638.


Gupta, J. K., and V. C. Nidodem. "Women's position during second stage of labor." In The Cochrane Library. Oxford: 1999.


Oski, F. A. "By the numbers." Contemporary Pediatrics (November 1993): 9.

Stone, P. W., and P. H. Walker. "Cost-effectiveness analysis: Birth center v. hospital care." Nursing Economics 13 (1995): 299-308.


Department of Health and Human Services. "Healthy people 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

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